Original Research

Prognostic Value of Reflux of Contrast into the Inferior Vena Cava and Hepatic Veins on CT Pulmonary Angiography in Patients of Pulmonary Embolism

Authors
  • Farheen Raza (Shifa International Hospital Limited, Islamabad, Pakistan)
  • Adnan Arif (Shifa International Hospital Limited (SIH), Islamabad, Pakistan.)
  • Muhammad Ali Raza (Air University, Islamabad, Pakistan)
  • Fawad Yasin (Akbar Niazi Teaching Hospital, Islamabad, Pakistan)
  • Maryam Asghar (Gambat Institute of Medical Sciences, Gambat, Pakistan)
  • Alishbah Ziad (Shaukat Khanum Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan)

Abstract

A pulmonary embolism (PE) that obstructs pulmonary arterial blood flow is a medical emergency. Its early detection and appropriate management can be lifesaving. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) is currently in use as a standard tool for diagnosis of PE. This study was performed to determine the prognostic accuracy of contrast reflux into the inferior vena cava (IVC) and hepatic veins on CTPA in patients suffering from acute PE.

Materials and Methods

The study was composed of 285 patients between 15 to 85 years of age that had filling defects in pulmonary arteries on CTPA that were consistent with those of a pulmonary embolism. The extent of contrast reflux into the IVC and hepatic veins was determined on the basis of a Groves scale. The patients were followed for a period of 30 days.

Results

Of 285 total patients, 200 (70.17%) survived the post PE period of 30 days and were labeled as survivors. The other 85 (29.83%) patients did not survive the 30-day duration and were called non-survivors. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and diagnostic accuracy of IVC contrast reflux grading were 65.8%, 90%, 73.68%, 86.12 % and 82.8 % respectively.

Conclusion

We conclude that IVC contrast reflux grading assessed on helical CT is a beneficial tool for predicting prognosis in cases of acute PE.

Keywords: pulmonary embolism, contrast reflux, inferior vena cava, prognosis

How to Cite:

Raza, F. & Arif, A. & Raza, M. A. & Yasin, F. & Asghar, M. & Ziad, A., (2022) “Prognostic Value of Reflux of Contrast into the Inferior Vena Cava and Hepatic Veins on CT Pulmonary Angiography in Patients of Pulmonary Embolism”, Journal of Global Radiology 8(1): 3. doi: https://doi.org/10.7191/jgr.2022.1183

Rights: © 2022 Raza, Arif, Raza, Yasin, Asghar and Ziad. This open access article is distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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Published on
22 Jul 2022